• ‘Where Wrath and Mercy Meet’
  • A brief historical overview
  • Atonement in Hebrews and 1 Peter
  • Atonement in John’s Gospel and First Letter
  • Atonement in Paul’s Writings
  • Atonement in the Synoptic Gospels
  • Recent Evangelical Criticisms of Penal Substitution
  • The cross of Christ is absolutely central to the teaching of the New Testament. Much is made of it in connection with the promise of salvation through Jesus, but it is also the focus of teaching about discipleship, ministry and ethics.

    A variety of images or models – such as redemption, justification, reconciliation and victory over the powers of evil – are used in Scripture to proclaim the saving or atoning significance of Jesus’ death. Throughout church history, the cross has been at the heart of various expressions of orthodox Christianity and numerous attempts have been made to explain how it is effective for us, including the satisfaction, moral influence, dramatic, governmental, ransom and penal substitution models.

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